The central theme of this blog is that there are no mental illnesses. The concept of mental illness is a spurious invention of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals for the purpose of medicalizing normal human problems and selling drugs.
The central tenet of the mental health system is that unusual, bizarre, and disturbing behaviors are caused by mental disorders (or illnesses). But their definition of a mental disorder is: a serious behavioral problem. So problem behavior is caused by problem behavior. This is the facile logic behind the widespread peddling of drugs in which psychiatry and the mental health system engage.
Within the mental health system a personality disorder is conceptualized as a specific kind of mental illness and is defined as follows:
“an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment.” (DSM-IV-TR, p. 685)
DSM lists eleven different kinds of personality disorder. These are: paranoid; schizoid; schizotypal; antisocial; borderline; histrionic; narcissistic; avoidant; dependent; obsessive-compulsive; and of course, personality disorder not otherwise specified.
Let us examine schizoid personality disorder. The APA lists the following criteria:
A. A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of
expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and
present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:
(1) neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
(2) almost always chooses solitary activities
(3) has little if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
(4) takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
(5) lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
(6) appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
(7) shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity
B. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder
With Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental
Disorder and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical
condition. (DSM-IV-TR, p 697)
It is clear from even a cursory examination of these criteria that what’s involved here are the qualities of solitariness, introspection, and stoicism. Note in particular that the criteria do not require that the individual be troubled by these qualities. Even if a person is perfectly contented with his habitual state of quiet isolation, he nevertheless has a mental illness and swells the ranks of the “untreated sufferers.” The so-called schizoid personality disorder is one of the more blatant examples of the APA’s pathologizing of normal human differences. Even their selection of the word “schizoid” serves to impart connotations of danger and hidden pathology.
The fact is that each of the criterion qualities listed above is present in the human population to a varied degree. And it is indeed the case that some individuals are introspective and isolative to an extreme degree. Assuming, however, that this necessarily constitutes a problem is unwarranted and dangerous. Most of the introspective individuals I have known are contented productive people who would be truly appalled to learn that in reality they are suffering from a mental illness and that they need treatment (i.e. drugs). The drugs, of course, will be prescribed by a psychiatrist and manufactured by a pharmaceutical company. It is little wonder that a former surgeon general could state that one fifth of the US population is suffering from a mental disorder in any given year. As has been stressed many times in this blog, the primary purpose of DSM is not to advance our knowledge of ourselves as a species, or help us become more resilient and adaptive, but rather to generate income for psychiatrists and pharmaceutical companies.
The reader who is not particularly isolative or introspective might be thinking “Oh, well – but it doesn’t apply to me.” Read on.
Here are the DSM criteria for dependent personality disorder:
A pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:
(1) has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others
(2) needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life
(3) has difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval. Note: Do not include realistic fears of retribution.
(4) has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his or her own (because of a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities rather than a lack of motivation or energy)
(5) goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant
(6) feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for himself or herself
(7) urgently seeks another relationship as a source of care and support when a close relationship ends
(8) is unrealistically preoccupied with fears of being left to take care of himself or herself
Two generations ago probably half the women in our culture would have met these criteria. (Note that only five of the items have to be met.) Even today a substantial percentage of the women in our society are raised to think of themselves as essentially dependent and as having little or no personal identity until they have become “hitched” to a man. By calling this a mental disorder, the APA is pathologizing what for many individuals is a normal state. It is also critical to note that the only reason that this particular lifestyle is a mental disorder is that the APA say so. The APA attempts to promote the idea that their so-called diagnoses are based on science. This is simply not the case, and is certainly not true of the so-called personality disorders. The APA and its various committees have simply decided that certain lifestyles and mindsets are to be considered pathological. They pretend that this reflects some kind of reality, i.e. that in fact these individuals are truly damaged in some way. But in fact the determination that certain mindsets constitute disorders while others do not is entirely arbitrary.
Why, for instance, is there not an independent personality disorder? After all, if people who are extremely dependent are to be considered pathologized, why not the individuals at the other end of the continuum? Individuals who never ask for help; who conceptualize asking for help as shameful; who are driven to succeed by their own efforts; who never see themselves as part of a team, etc., etc.. One could easily draft eight or ten criteria, arbitrarily require that 3 or 4 or 5 of these be met, and voila! A new diagnosis. Frighteningly, there are probably individuals within the APA who would take this suggestion seriously. The APA’s objective is to pathologize as much normal behavior as possible, and this has been demonstrated clearly by each successive revision of the DSM.
Next Post: Sexual Disorders Are Not Illnesses