Melissa, a commenter on a recent post, asked if I would do a post on akathisia.

Akathisia literally means inability to sit.  People with this problem typically pace for long periods, and if they do sit down, they continue to keep moving and shifting their position in the chair.

In severity it can range from a generalized sense of uneasiness or agitation, to severe discomfort and even pain.  The discomfort tends to be located in the legs, but can also occur in the hip and pelvic area.  In severe cases, the victims pace to the point of exhaustion, but even then sitting does not relieve the discomfort.


The major cause of akathisia is the ingestion of neuroleptics and other drugs, including SSRIs and other antidepressants.

Akathisia also occurs in withdrawal from benzodiazepines (e.g. Valium, Xanax, etc.), opiates, and amphetamines.


Akathisia is usually treated symptomatically with propranolol (Inderal), a beta-blocker widely used to treat high blood pressure.  Possible side effects include: congestive heart failure, insomnia, hallucinations, short-term memory loss, etc…

Benzodiazepines are sometimes used in the management of akathisia, but this, of course, can precipitate further problems on withdrawal.

Akathisia often stops when the drugs are discontinued, but in some cases can persist even years after the drugs are stopped.

Neuroleptic-induced akathisia is listed in DSM-IV-TR (under medication-induced movement disorders).  DSM states that “Akathisia may be associated with dysphoria, irritability, aggression or suicide attempts.” (p 801). [emphasis added]

It is widely maintained that akathisia is the “mechanism” linking SSRI’s with suicide and violence.  See, for instance, SSRI-Induced Akathisia’s Link To Suicide and Violence, by Evelyn Pringle.

It is not possible to communicate the profound horror of severe akathisia in a brief post such as this.  In the late 80’s, I worked for a while at a publicly-funded substance abuse unit in an Eastern state.  The unit was on the grounds of a state hospital, but was separate from the hospital physically and administratively.

During my lunch hour, I often walked in the grounds, and most days I encountered Betty (not her real name).  She had been resident at the hospital for years, and had extreme tardive dyskinesia and akathisia.  She was about 50, but looked more like 70.  She walked the grounds constantly in almost all weathers.  We would stop and chat, though her tardive dyskinesia made her speech almost unintelligible.  But even while she was stopped, she continued to pace on the spot.  She literally couldn’t stop.  And after a few minutes, she would move on.

I used to wonder what possible benefit outweighed the dreadful damage that had been done to this woman.  What risk had she posed to herself or to others that justified reducing her to this state of perpetual torment?

Sometimes I get tired of writing these posts; tired of sifting through the facile lies of psychiatric complacency; tired of reading about psychiatry’s fat cats wallowing in the corrupting bounty of pharma money.  And then, I remember Betty.  Poor old Betty, living as best she could in her psychiatry-fabricated Hell.

If you’ve never seen a person suffering from akathisia, there’s a video here.

  • Cledwyn B’stard

    Thanks for this post. I’ve experienced this before, but all of a sudden, after years of taking the drugs, it’s come back, and it’s just the worse torture I have ever experienced, along with dystonia. I hope these beta blockers work, because I’ve been taking way too much lorazepam recently. Life isn’t worth living when you feel like this.

    When I was in one of these “hospitals”, I knew someone exactly like the person you mentioned in the post. She’d been on neuroleptics for years, and she lived in perpetual torment, yet it was all dismissed as part of her disease. Yet they treated her as a nuisance.

  • Phil_Hickey


    Sorry to hear about the akathisia. I hope you manage to get some relief.

    “Yet they treated her as a nuisance.” I can believe it!

  • Francesca Allan

    Cledwyn, I had no idea you were dealing with this. I’m very sorry. That video was unbearable — I couldn’t watch to the end.

  • Cledwyn B’stard


  • Cledwyn B’stard

    Thanks. It really is horrendous.

  • Beth Leight Ricketts

    My daughter has akathisia and she is 7. She is supposed to start 2nd grade and I am scared I have no clue how to help her

  • Phil_Hickey


    I am truly sorry to hear this. Tragically more and more young children will share your daughter’s plight as pharma-psychiatry promotes its products to this age group.

  • Cledwyn Raging Bulbs

    Brutalitarian. I offer you my sincerest condolences, because I’m going through chronic akathisia, and I wouldn’t even wish this on these psychiatrists using the kindergarten as a recruiting ground for human sacrifices and experimental subjects.

    The only way to help her is to discontinue the drugs. Simple. Apart from that, the doctors you go to for help will just throw other toxins at you, like in my country procyclidine, which is nasty, and in america, beta-blockers. And you’ll get no compassion from these people most likely, because they are a bunch of typically solipsistic bourgeois ignorami with no direct experience of the kind of suffering they cause by prescribing these drugs, without proper disclosure of what has been known for a long time (and often forcing, as was the case with me, people to take them sometimes for so long that coming off them is not really an option, so that you just have to live with chronic akathisia, in a world where no-one, apart from your fellow akathisiacs, has the slightest idea of the enormity of what you are undergoing).

    Don’t expect any help from the bastards who put your daughter on these drugs, because of the mechanized denial amongst the proponents and practitioners of institutional psychiatry. The profession has no interest; it is utterly self-serving. If these people were to have an honest reckoning with the suffering they are causing and have been causing for hundreds of years, they’d end up like Lady Macbeth, so they just withdraw deeper and deeper into their own fantasies, acting like we don’t exist, and sacrificing more and more lives in maintenance of their outrageous fantasies, just so that the bad can sleep well, aided and abetted by the fact that most of the critics offer only diluted criticisms of this one of the great institutional evils in human history, this Moloch in medical garb, which cannot be denounced vehemently enough.

    The profession is a Trojan horse, an enemy in the midst of suffering humanity, that gains entrance to our trust and our hearts through deceptive means, only to destroy us. It is no more consecrated to the amelioration of human suffering than the Inquisition was to fighting evil.

    State psychiatry is a mala fide medical profession, a deception operating on such a large scale, even the deceivers are being deceived.

    It is fraud par excellence. In the world of psychiatry, you would do well to infer from what is said the polar opposite.

    The state psychiatrist is a doctor manque, a cowboy.

    Coming back to your daughter, it all depends really on how long your daughter has been on them. The big problem is for those of us who are trapped in this nightmare, for whom chronic akathisia is now an ineluctable part of our experience. If your daughter can easily come off them, then cessation of the “medication” should solve the problem.

    Nevertheless, direct experience of suffering at the hands of your species is one of the channels through which one can achieve moral salvation, so for this at least I am for chronic akathisia. It has really opened my eyes.

    Suffering at the hands of your fellow man affords insight into the depravity that has taken up permanent residence in the heart of man, a depravity that, for most people in our society, remains obscured from view;

    -because of the sheltered lives most men lead.

    -because of ethnocentric attachment to one’s own society that precludes honest appraisal of its institutions, customs, laws and values. –

    -because habit blinds us to the truth about the here and now (men are too used to and too personally implicated in their own age to see it clearly)

    -because of institutionalized denialism regarding human suffering within the culture.

    -because of those other inertial forces in human societies, those forces that retard progress, such as prepossession in favour of the familiar, man’s absolute terror of change, under whose influence his approval of atrocity is extorted (as long as the atrocity is familiar and supported by custom and convention, it won’t fail to find advocates from amongst the masses, whose minds operate perpetually under habit’s and custom’s thrall).

    -because complicity in evil, or a stake in its reign.

  • DG

    I experience this now every time I withdraw from opiates. My theory is like many psychoactive drugs, when someone moves from addiction to dependence, over time, after going through kindling type effects from opiate or other withdrawals, dysphoria, restlessness, leads to feelings or symptoms that are extremely similar to what one goes through during neuroleptic induced akathisia. Whether withdrawal from opiates are defined as specifically akathisia, or possess similar symptoms to what one goes through during acute type akathisia, doesn’t matter. The feeling is absolutely horrific, and the worst of all the symptoms(which has caused me to relapse to given opiate from not being able to stand three four days of hell before it eventually would ease up)
    Suggestions-clonazepam in particular used with inderal is great to ease the restlessness both subjective and objective. Only use for when symptoms exists, at most a week. Benedryl if one does not have clonazepam can be tried, but restless legs can be worsened especially during the worst of the acute stage of opiate withdrawal.
    even stopping adderall after chronic use, gives sensations of inner restlessness, but I believe that is more agitation type symptoms. Lorazepam helps with that specific kind of agitation.

  • Gina Johnson

    Does it help for anxiety and nervousness? I have heard that Xanax http://alliantpharma.com/Xanax is the best. What do you think?

  • Syntara Sarych

    I was prescribed Saphris. Took it for almost 4 years. During that time I lived in high powered mania, I attempted suicide once, suffered episodes of relentless inability to sleep 3, maybe 4 nights running, thought I had unending restless leg syndrome, and without understanding why, had no less than 6 different totally unaccountable major car accidents. Police arriving on the scene of these major car accidents I caused did not feel I was in any way inebriated. They did ask if I had been on my cell phone at the time, but my cell phone was always deeply buried in my purse because I know my limitations and I cannot multitask when driving. The police, seeing me dig through my purse to try and locate my cell phone knew I’d been truthful that I hadn’t been using it when the accidents occurred. Recently, I read that some prescription sleep med can cause a person to feel, the next day as though they are fully awake and cleared headed, yet do things that would make one believe they were sound asleep. Ater almost 4 years on Saphris, it began to be clear to me that the worst of these physical effects came barreling down on me shortly after my nightly Saphris dose. I queried my doctor about a possible cause/effect relationship between my physical and mental issues in taking the Saphris, and Saphris itself. My psychiatrist did a quick check on Saphris side effects and indeed Akathisia IS a side effect. Saphris is labeled for use as a major tranquilizer. It sure didn’t make me tranquil!!! With me, soon after taking my nightly Saphris dose, I would begin feeling as though electric shocks were shooting thru my limbs, my heart would race in a most worrisome way, and I could not remain still; restless in bed, so get out of bed. Restless sitting. Restless, restless, restless. And then on this web page I find severe akathisia can cause suicide attempts. Wow!! I had NO IDEA there’s any relationship between Akathisia and suicide attempts, but since I had indeed at one point attempted suicide about 1.5 years after starting Saphris, I can only believe there WAS a relationship. After discontinuing Saphris, I stopped having any further inexplicable car accidents, no more high wired manic feelings, and after about 16 months after stopping Saphris, my sleep patterns returned to something approaching normal. No more desires to stay up, without any sleep at all for frequent times of being fully awake, unable to sleep for 3 and 4 days and nights in a row.

    Now, knowing a law suit over this may be possible, if only because the prescribing psychiatrist NEVER ONCE told me Saphris could have major, even (as was my case) life threatening side effects, I am pursuing possible legal action for all I went through while taking Saphris, and how now, 18 months after discontinuing Saphris, I’ve ceased having all those other akathisia-related problems, particularly the suicide attempt and those 6 different major car accidents all within two years,

    More people need to step up and let the medical/pharmaceutical millionaires know what these drugs can do to people.

    If you have had similar experiences, please go to the NOLO.com legal assistance website and look into laws and law suits over any psychiatric drugs you have taken wherein the prescribing physician never bothered to explain just how dangerous some psychiatric drug side effects can be.

    We DO NOT have to put up with this!!!

  • Recognizing akathisia – a feeling of restlessness or anxiety, can be somewhat tricky for two main reasons. The first is that the visible symptoms overlap with a number of other movement disorders that can be caused by various physical or psychological conditions.

    The second is that part of the diagnoses relies on a very subjective feeling of restlessness.


  • frank mack

    “Due to severe side effects, adverse reactions, and constant withdrawal symptoms from ALL the psychiatric drugs approximately 75 over time) I became ‘stuck’ in the revolving door of psychiatric hospitals, emergency rooms, ICU’s, and jails for the next 35 years from psychiatric drug- induced: mania’s, crippling depressions to the point of at least 15 suicide attempts – 2 resulting in coma, Klonopin induced anxiety developing into chronic panic attacks and finally full-blown agoraphobia when I’ve never experienced this before, excruciating migraines…”

    You will not, because you can not, demonstrate any evidence that supports your claims that psychiatric drugs had anything to do with your list of tragedies.

  • Frank Mack

    “The major cause of akathisia is the ingestion of neuroleptics and other drugs, including SSRIs and other antidepressants.”

    not one objective, scientific, test exists that supports this preposterous lie.

  • Frank Mack

    tardive dyskinesia

    no objective scientific test substantiates the lie that tardive dyskinesia is caused by medication.

  • Phil_Hickey


    Here are some quotes from the 2013 PDR on Saphris (p 1737):

    “Saphris is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for:

    Treatment of schizophrenia…

    Acute treatment…of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder…

    Warnings and Precautions

    Cerebrovascular Adverse Events

    Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome…

    Tardive Dyskinesia…

    Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus…

    Weight Gain…

    Hypersensitivity Reactions…

    Orthostatic Hypotension and Syncope…

    Leukopenia, Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis…

    QT Prolongation…


    Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment…


    Adverse Reactions

    Commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence ≥5% and at least twice that for placebo) were:

    Schizophrenia: akathisia, oral hypoesthesia, and somnolence.

    Bipolar Disorder (Monotherapy): somnolence, dizziness, extrapyramidal symptoms other than akathisia, and weight increased.

    Bipolar Disorder (Adjunctive): somnolence and oral hypoesthesia.”


    You will find similar entries for all neuroleptic drugs. If you don’t have a paper PDR, check PDR.net online.

    PDR entries are written by the drug manufacturers themselves. The causal link between neuroleptic drugs and tardive dyskinesia is widely accepted. In fact, until I read your comment, I would have said universally accepted.

    If you’re genuinely confused on this matter, please feel free to come back. If you have some serious references that challenge this link, I’d be glad to see them.

  • Kim

    Hi Beth,
    I’m not sure where you live or if you’ll see this, but I am a student of Herbal Medicine in Canada, and there are herbs that can help your daughter (and others) with this. In addition, if you see a Homeopath, he or she could offer you some homeopathic medicine which would be totally safe, even if your daughter is still on a pharmaceutical, because homeopathics do not interact with other drugs.
    Also, a qualified acupuncturist could also be helpful.

  • Sandy chisholm

    ty for your post….I found it very helpful to understand what my husband is going through.

  • Phil_Hickey


    You’re very welcome. I’m glad that you found the material helpful, and I hope that things go well for you and your husband.

  • Guest

    I appreciate the later half of your post but the beginning, geez, dramatic seems too tame a word. People who suffer don’t need conspiracy theories or even tough truths enveloped in narratives written as if describing End Of Days.
    I hate using this word but I ASSUME your profession to be professorial or possibly a student of philosophy, maybe drama/theatrical or a writer. While I believe you’ve been touched by psychology in someway and seem to have had a difficult or even terrible experience not all associated with it are evil. I have Akathesia, depression and anxiety, as well as Crohn’s Disease, which started all of it I’m sure but I’m not just given pills. My psychiatrist always starts with alternative options before giving prescriptions. So please be careful with sweeping assumptions and accusations on sites where people go for support and not rhetoric.

  • Guest

    Doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist and not everyone has adverse chemical reactions. Side effects are only listed that have been seen in most studies but those not in studies aren’t being seen. However they can notify the manufacturer and the FDA to start the process of getting these side effects listed.

  • Guest

    Doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist and not everyone has adverse chemical reactions. Side effects are only listed that have been seen in most studies but those not in studies aren’t being seen. However they can notify the manufacturer and the FDA to start the process of getting these side effects listed. It’s no different then when one drug helps one person while not doing anything for another person.

  • Adrian Martinez

    I remember this awful symptom when I was on the drug Mellaril and believe it or not, this medicine was prescribed to me when I was 6 years old. It was no fun and it only did more damage than help.